The region of the atmospheric surface layer that is affected by the friction between ground and atmosphere is called the atmospheric boundary layer.
The effect of wind conditions in ABL increases flight duration, route modifications, and the high consumption of fuel.
Computational fluid dynamics is a robust and reliable tool for simulating ABL.
Understanding flow properties within the atmospheric boundary layer is important for engineering bridges, buildings, vehicles, and especially aircraft
A model of the airflow across an engineering structure helps provide insight into flow behavior at a high resolution. Understanding flow properties within the atmospheric boundary layer is important for engineering bridges, buildings, vehicles, and especially aircraft. Precise modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer helps mitigate uncertainty regarding airflow characteristics related to location and environmental conditions. Atmospheric boundary layer modeling also takes into account the atmospheric processes influencing an engineering structure's functioning.
Let’s explore the atmospheric boundary layer and its role in aerodynamics.
The Atmospheric Boundary Layer
The region of the atmospheric surface layer that is affected by the friction between ground and atmosphere is called the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The atmospheric air is a real fluid, and there is a transmission of surface shear from the ground to a certain height, usually called the thickness of the atmospheric boundary layer. Velocity gradients are responsible for the transmission of shear stress in ABL. Above ABL, ground effects can be neglected.
The thickness of ABL is dependent on the terrain of the location. ABL is affected by the outer atmosphere as well. Man-made modifications of the environment have a great impact on ABL characteristics. Air motion in the ABL is due to pressure gradients and the diurnal heating cycles imposed by large-scale atmospheric pressure fields and solar radiation, respectively. The resulting velocity and temperature fields describe the natural conditions of the atmosphere in which most human activities take place. The construction of tall buildings, airplane travel, kite flying, etc. happen in this atmospheric boundary layer.
Atmospheric Boundary Layer Interactions on Low Flying Aerial Vehicles
Aerial vehicles that operate in the lower part of the atmosphere are sensitive to weather-related problems. The effect of wind conditions in ABL increases flight duration, route modifications, and the high consumption of fuel.
As the size of the aerial vehicle and its speed decreases, the impact of weather conditions increases. ABL effects play an important role in determining the drag force developed by the aircraft. The design of aircraft and airfoils should be carried out such that the design minimizes the drag induced by the ABL effects.
Appropriate modeling of the ABL flow is significant in generating weather forecasts that support air traffic in the region closer to the Earth’s surface as well as improved aircraft design for good aerodynamic performance.
The Challenges of Studying the Atmospheric Boundary Layer
Under stationary conditions, the ABL can be modeled within 30 to 60 m above the ground levels using various theories and scaling laws. However, with increasing height, complex terrain, and non-stationary conditions, advanced techniques are required for modeling ABL. To model ABL in complex terrain, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) codes are used. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a robust and reliable tool for simulating ABL.
Let’s look at one application where the CFD tool is used to model ABL.
Applying Computational Fluid Dynamics for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Analysis in Wind Tunnels
You may have heard about the wind tunnels used for studying airflow characteristics, most often in aviation systems. In wind tunnels, atmospheric aerodynamic phenomena are investigated by modeling the atmospheric boundary layer.
In wind tunnels, the atmospheric boundary layer is simulated to understand the complex airflow behavior that it deals with. The use of wind tunnels with atmospheric boundary layer simulations enables proper control of the airflow parameters and provides accurate modeling of the real environment on a proper scale. To model reliable atmospheric boundary layers, CFD models are used. The accuracy of the calculations obtained from CFD models of ABL is comparable with experimental facilities.
Analyzing atmospheric boundary layers is important in aviation systems in order to showcase excellent aerodynamic performance. Cadence’s suite of CFD tools can help engineers with the simulation of atmospheric boundary layers, as these tools are excellent in adapting to the specific instances of additional physical phenomena in systems.