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5G Primer for MIMO/Phased-Array Antennas

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Platform Bridges the 5G Design/Verification Gap The emerging third phase of information connectivity will change the use of wireless technology dramatically. The first phase connected homes and businesses through wired telephony and the early internet via dial-up modems. Over the last few decades, the development of communication networks has been superseded by wireless mobile technology connecting people instead of places. Today, there are over seven billion mobile devices in the world connecting over 3.8 billion people— the next frontier will be to connect things through the developing IoT concept. It has been well published that within the next decade at least 10 times the number of things as people will be connected. This new era will usher in a host of new wireless technologies to support IoT and the underlying 5G infrastructure currently in the early conceptual phase. The promise of increased information bandwidth and faster response times (low latency) for real-time wireless control with minimal power consumption are highly attractive system goals, as shown in Figure 7. Achieving these goals will pose a significant challenge to design teams working on the enabling semiconductor technology and infra- structure that will define the physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC), and routing layers of future 5G networks. Although the technical requirements necessary to make 5G and IoT a commercial success are demanding, the economic potential and business opportunities are enormous. Thus, billions of dollars are being poured into industry and academia research. Figure 7: 5G goals for communication speeds and latency to support wireless control called for with the IoT and IIoT 5G networks will likely be based on multi-radio access technology (multi-RAT) using existing cellular base stations to ensure broad coverage and high mobility and interspersed small cells for capacity and indoor service. These future networks will use a combination of small-cell and macrocell base stations, as well as cellular and wireless networking (WiFi), with considerable research into using WiFi for cellular traffic offloading. Although there is not yet full agreement on which technology will address the 5G challenge, researchers are converging on four vectors: f Massive MIMO technology - dramatically increases the number of antennas a base station employs for mobile device coverage, as well as high-speed backhaul links f Network densification – includes space (dense deployment of small cells to achieve greater coverage using more nodes) and spectral (utilizing larger portions of radio spectrum in diverse bands) f 5G waveforms – increases bandwidth utilization through structural improvements of signals and modulation techniques f mmWave frequencies - new spectrum (3-300GHz) frequency ranges to provide very large bandwidths capable of delivering multi-Gbps data rates, as well as the extremely dense spatial reuse to increase capacity 5G Primer for MIMO/Phased-Array Antennas 7

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