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Design and Physical Realization of Phased Array Antennas for MIMO/Beam Steering Applications

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Design and Physical Realization of Phased Array Antennas for MIMO/Beam Steering Applications 7 www.cadence.com/go/awr Configuring Phased Array Antennas The AWR VSS phased array generator wizard enables designers to specify key electrical/physical attributes of the array, including number of elements, distance between elements, coupling between elements (along with edge and corner behavior, frequency, geometry of the array, and radiation pattern for each element or group of elements. Users can organize radiating elements into groups and assign different antenna radiation details and RF link properties to individual or multiple elements at a time, usually based on location within the array, such as an edge or corner. This capability helps simplify and expedite the process of setting up arrays with many elements by scaling element/feed details to the entire array using a smaller, more manageable number of element groups. Elements within the same group can then be assigned an antenna and/or RF link configuration from among multiple user-defined configurations. To group elements, the user selects New Group, thereby creating a generically named Group N in the Groups listing. The new group can be renamed with a more meaningful description, such as edge elements or corner elements, by double clicking on the default name. The designer then selects the elements by clicking on the various elements in the layout view while holding the shift key and selecting the appropriate group name from the selection list after choosing the Change Group menu item that appears with a right mouse click. Elements that are grouped will appear in an assigned color to easily identify groups within the array (Figure 6). Figure 6: Elements can be grouped and assigned element antenna and RF link configurations as defined by the user This feature offers additional automation, such as if the array geometry is either lattice or circular. The Auto Group option helps create and assign elements to pre-defined groups based on being an edge, corner, or interior element. For lattice geometries, the auto group option will generate up to nine groups (depending upon the number of elements in each row and column), including one group for each corner element (up to four groups), groups along the left, top, right, and bottom edges of the array, and one group containing all the remaining (interior) elements. For circular geometries, the auto group option will generate a group for each radius entry. Custom grouping can also be done simply by selecting individual elements and using the Create Group option. A real-time graphical view of the layout allows designers to inspect the proposed array configuration instantaneously, as well as a view of the resulting antenna pattern (Figure 7). Figure 7: The graphical view allows users to observe the array radiation pattern in real-time while adjusting the frequency, power level, and steering angles (theta/phi)

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